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生命教育研究

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篇名 論自主之基礎-MartinHeidegger基礎存有學之觀點
卷期 5:1
並列篇名 On the Fundament of Autonomy-Heidegger's Fundamental-ontology
作者 林薰香
頁次 125-148
關鍵字 海德格自主負責良知死亡Martin Heideggerautonomyresponsibilityconsciencedeath
出刊日期 201306
DOI 10.3966/207466012013060501005

中文摘要

本文以《存有與時間》之基礎存有學觀點及現象詮釋學方法,試圖從MartinHeidegger(1889-1976)相關論述整理出自主的觀點,並嘗試論證負責乃是獨立自主的根據。沒有負責,人無法返回自身;沒有自身,人則無法獨立自主,亦無法通達生存的真理。嚴格而言,根據Heidegger的觀點,自主之基礎有二:一是向來我屬性,一是負責,即,對自身的回應。向來我屬性於《存有與時間》主要是透過死亡的分析彰顯出來,Heidegger透過對生存的整體結構論述生命本質,並指出死亡本來就是屬己的,具有向來我屬性(Jemeinigkeit, in each case mine)。然而,被拋到世間之後,人大多時候都是沉淪在日常生活之中,逃避死亡。他認為,只有當人本真地領會日常生活的現象與屬己的死亡,人才可能從貪生怕死之中解脫出來,返回自身(Selbst, itself/theself)而持駐(Ständigsein, being-constant),進而能在紛擾多變的世界聽見良知的呼聲而保有真正的獨立自主。除了對上述自主的基礎分別進行探討,本文並論述自由與尊重如何作為自主與負責的體現。

英文摘要

Based on the concepts of Fundamental-ontology and the methods of Phenomenological- Hermeneutics in Being and Time (Heidegger, 1927/2008), this paper will try to elucidate Martin Heidegger's (1889-1976) thesis about Autonomy, which will be analyzed through the discussion of "self "and "self-constancy" (Selbst-ständigkeit), in order to demonstrate that "responsibility" could be the ontological ground of "independence" and "autonomy." Without responsibility, one would not be able to return to his itself. Consequently, one would not enjoy autonomy nor realize the truth of existence. Strictly speaking, Heidegger's Autonomy has two grounds: one is the In-each-casemine (Jemeinigkeit), and the other is responsibility, which could be defined as the response to itself. In-each-case-mine in Being and Time (1927) is manifested mainly in the analysis of the phenomenon of Death. In his discourse on the essence of life in the context of the structure of existence, Heidegger points out that "death", in the case of each individual, belongs to that individual, and is therefore "my own death which belongs to me only, and would not be shared with anyone else nor replaced by anyone else's death." In the context of daily life, however, human beings tend to have the mentality of trying to escape from their own deaths. Heidegger contends that only if human beings realized the In-each-case-mine of death and its connection with everyday life could they truly be freed from the fear of death. They could, therefore, return to the self and remain constant in the world. As a result, they could hear the call of conscience and maintain their true autonomy. In light of the above-mentioned thesis in Being and Time, this paper will demonstrate how "freedom" and "respect" would become the representation of autonomy and responsibility.