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勞工安全衛生研究季刊

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篇名 製鞋業勞工作業環境有害物暴露現況研究
卷期 22:4
並列篇名 The Study in Expoure of Hazardous Substances for Footwear Industry Workplaces
作者 顏慶堂鄭政峯李聯雄鄭淑芳
頁次 313-323
關鍵字 製鞋業作業環境測定有害物健康暴露Footwear industryWorkplace monitoringHazardous substancesHealth hazard
出刊日期 201412

中文摘要

台灣的製鞋業自1966年開始引進技術生產,至2011年經行業校正後目前共計有464家事業單位仍從事生產工作。生產過程中勞工會有使用許多化學品,因此勞工會有化學性因子的健康暴露存在。國際間對製鞋業作業環境有害物的研究,以正己烷、甲苯、苯及丙酮等物質最多;導致勞工健康危害的研究,以神經系統疾病、白血病等為主。對於勞工作業環境有害物暴露現況調查研究,是對於製鞋業勞工健康危害預防與改善政策擬定時的重要依據。本研究以GC-FID的2種不同層析條件,同步進行14種鞋類製造業可能存在有機溶劑(甲苯、二甲苯、正己烷、甲基環己烷、環己烷、二氯甲烷、乙基苯、1,2,3-三甲基苯、苯、乙酸乙酯、乙酸丁酯、丁酮、丙酮、苯乙烯)的物質分析。本研究針對5家製鞋業的作業環境測定,共計47個現場採樣樣本。研究結果發現,二甲苯、乙基苯、1,2,3-三甲基苯、苯及苯乙烯等5種物質是在所有樣本都沒有超過最低偵測極限或未測得訊號者;乙酸丁酯及甲基環己烷僅有在1家事業單位的樣品被檢出;甲苯、乙酸乙酯、丁酮、丙酮、正己烷等物質則是在大部份樣本被檢測出來的有機溶劑;環己烷及二氯甲烷則是屬於特殊用途添加。勞工作業環境空氣中的有機溶劑濃度以有害物暴露的相加效應評估,所測得的濃度均符合容許濃度的規定,僅有1家公司的2位員工因甲苯暴露濃度超過1/2容許濃度值。經由本研究作業環境測定的結果,建議加強製鞋業的勞工安全衛生宣導工作,雇主應加強安全衛生人員的訓練、定期執行作業環境測定、落實勞工的健康檢查與管理、設置工業通風設備與管理等相關勞工安全衛生的工作,以避免勞工因為化學性因子導致健康危害發生。

英文摘要

Footwear industry introduces the technology and produce in Taiwan since 1966. Based on the industry-rectifi cation information issued in 2011 in the website, there were 464 companies belonged to manufacturers after revision. Labor in the production process will use a lot of chemicals, so workers will be exposed to chemical factors in health exist. According to the collection from international journals published, the most studied hazardous substances in the workplaces of footwear industries were as in the order of n-hexane, toluene, benzene, and acetone; and the most noticeable employee health endangerment were as in the order of neurological diseases and leukemia. For the chemical status of transfer factor research the health of workers exposed for the footwear industry to improve worker health hazard prevention and important basis for policy development. In this study fourteen organic solvents probably used in the footwear production including toluene, xylene, hexane, methyl cyclohexane, cyclohexane, methylene chloride, ethyl benzene, 1,2,3- trimethylbenzene, benzene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone and styrene, were examined by gas chromatographic-fl ame ionization detector analysis with two elution conditions. In the workplace monitoring, 47 samples were collected from fi ve footwear manufacturers for workplace monitoring.Results indicated that the concentration of xylenes, ethylbenzene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, benzene and styrene in all samples were non-detectable or below detection limits. Butyl acetate and methyl cyclohexane were found in the sample from a factory. Toluene, ethyl acetate, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone and n-hexane were the most often detectable organic solvents both in the samples and in the manufacturers. Cyclohexane and methylene chloride were used for special purposes. From the individual inspection of these fourteen solvents in the footwear workplace, exposures of workers from all of these solvents were in compliance with the allowable concentrations in our regulations. In considering the additive effects of harmful exposure, they still made compliance with the permissible exposure limits, only two employees in one company the exposure concentrations of toluene were over 1/2 permissible exposure limits. From the results of inspection visits and workplace monitoring in this studies, we would like to give some suggestions, such as strengthening the advocacy work for labor safety and health to footwear manufacturers, claiming employers to strengthen security setups with operation training, to perform workplace monitoring, and to install ventilation equipments with well-management, in addition to the inspection and management of workers’ health.