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臺大歷史學報

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篇名 證據概念——從高中歷史課綱到教學問題探析
卷期 58
並列篇名 The Concept of Evidence: From National Curriculums to Historical Teaching
作者 林慈淑
頁次 249-286
關鍵字 證據概念歷史課綱歷史教學evidencenational curriculumhistory teachingTHCITSCI
出刊日期 201612
DOI 10.6253/ntuhistory.2016.58.06

中文摘要

本文旨在探討證據概念與歷史課綱、歷史教學之關係。證據是歷史 知識賴以建構的基礎,也是重要的歷史學科概念,而臺灣自1996 年頒 布「高級中學課程暫行綱要(九五):歷史」(「95 暫綱」)以來, 「史料證據」便列入其中,是學生必須獲得的四個「核心能力」之一。 然初步調查,培養學生證據概念這點,並未出現在一般教師於課堂中引 介資料的期待和考慮中,顯示課綱所載和實際教學間存在極大落差。為 了解教師在落實資料證據教學上可能面臨的困難,本文以英國1970 年 以來證據教學的經驗與瓶頸為對照,凸顯教學者掌握資料和證據之別, 以及證據之意義是首要之事。最後,本文也由英美歷史教育學者的反思 和討論闡明:教師使用資料、培養學生對證據的認知,必須透過探究模 式的教學,始有可能。

英文摘要

The present article sets out to explore the concept of evidence in the perspective of high school’s national curriculums and school’s history classes. History is a matter of interpretating evidence. Therefore the concept of evidence is an important element in historical thinking that children should learn in history classrooms. Indeed, “sources as evidence” have been written in the official documents on Taiwan’s National Curriculum for High School history since 1996. But, according to my research, teachers in general seem to lack any idea of using sources to inspire students’ understanding of evidence. This means there is a huge gap between ideal and reality. In order to comprehend the possible reasons for this discrepancy, this article reviews the development of teaching evidence in historical education in the UK since the 1970’s, and reveals that teachers first need to realize what evidence is and then to realize the difference between “source” and “evidence” if they want to help students to learn the concept of evidence. This article concludes that the most effective way to teach evidence is through classroom activities of historical enquiry.