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聖嚴研究

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篇名 聖嚴法師之漢傳佛教復興運動──以漢傳禪佛教為中心
卷期 2
並列篇名 The Renaissance Movement of Chinese Buddhism by Master Sheng Yen: Focusing on the Chinese Ch’an Buddhism he established
作者 釋果暉
頁次 303-360
關鍵字 漢傳禪佛教如來藏無我話頭默照止觀Chinese Ch'an BuddhismTathāgatagarbhaNo-selfHua-t'ouMo-chaoCalming and Contemplation
出刊日期 201107

中文摘要

佛教自東漢傳入中國,歷經魏晉南北朝至隋唐而大盛,而南宋之後,漢傳佛教開始走向下坡,以至現今之千年間大抵呈現衰落之勢,而有明末四大師之出世,復興佛教之頹勢於一時。十八世紀之工業革命以來,世界大勢丕變,閉關自守之清廷終淪為列強刀俎之魚肉,生民塗炭,國家近乎淪亡,佛教亦難以幸存,幸有太虛大師出世,遠遊他國考察,登高一乎,力主佛教之現代化。聖嚴法師與東初老和尚、太虛大師之間,有先後三代師生徒之理念傳承,從人生佛教而開展出人間淨土。太虛大師說中國佛學之特色在禪宗,聖嚴法師除了承繼虛雲老和尚之禪法,更以一介比丘留學東瀛,以教育做為復興漢傳佛教之根本大計,創辦高等佛學研究所二十餘載,終獲納入國家正規教育體系。法師更以弘講、禪修、著述及創建法鼓山僧團與道場,以復興漢傳禪佛教為急務,將漢傳禪法傳遍海內外。又在2000年於聯合國演說,提倡心靈環保做為世界永久和平之指針,獲得大會之肯定與讚許,其影響力是深刻而久遠的,法師的世界性貢獻可說來自漢傳禪佛教的智慧與慈悲。本文共分四段,第一段:先以佛教之歷史背景來分析「近代至當代之漢傳佛教歷史現況」;第二段:再以文化層面來深入探討「當代漢傳佛教之危機與轉機」;第三段:以追溯印度經論乃至漢傳修行思想來釐清「漢傳禪佛教之修行理論根據」;最後則以歸納聖嚴法之禪法思想體系來論述其「漢傳禪佛教復興運動」。

英文摘要

Transmitted to China in Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) and entered its prosperous time in Wei, Jin and the Southern and Northern Dynasties (265-589) periods, Chinese Buddhism reached its heyday in Sui and Tang Dynasties (581-907) and started its decline in Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1297). For almost a thousand years since then, it’s been more or less at a low ebb, though it had a momentary revival in the late Ming Dynasty (1368- 1644) due to the efforts and influences of the Four Main Buddhist Masters of that era. Since the Industry Revolution in 18th Century, the situation of the world had been greatly changed, so as the international affairs. Yet, due to the Manchu Court’s policy of isolationism, China became a conquered and victimized territory of the Great Powers. Populace were hard pressed and trampled, and the nation’s on the brink of collapse under the crush of Western inroads and encroachments. No exception to the Chinese Buddhism as well. It’s not until early 20th century when Master T'ai Hsü (1890-1947) made a clarion call to advocate the modernization of Chinese Buddhism after his travelling aboard for studying the conditions of Buddhism overseas, the light of reformation and renewal of the Buddhism has been seen once again. Along with the three-generation master-disciple lineage, from Master T'ai Hsü, Venerable Tung Ch'u (1908-1977) to Master Sheng Yen (1930-2009), the vision and mission of Modern Chinese Buddhism were passed through, commencing from Humanistic Buddhism to the promotion and development of Pure Land on Earth. Master T'ai Hsü stated that the unique characteristic of Chinese Buddhism lied in Ch'an (Zen) School. Master Sheng Yen not only inherited Venerable Hsü Yün’s (1840-1959) concept and methods of Ch'an lineage, merely as a monk, he also travelled aboard to study in Japan for years and received his Master and Doctorate degrees. He believed that Buddhist education is the key and foundation to the revival of the Chinese Buddhism in the long run. For more than twenty years, he’d been dedicating himself in establishing advanced Buddhism colleges. These colleges were finally accepted as formal national education institutions. Moreover, Master Sheng Yen also dedicating himself in dharma preaching, promotion of Ch'an practices, writing books of Buddhism and establishing the Dharma Dram Mountain Sangha and the Practice Center. These all showed his strong determination to revive the Chinese Ch'an Buddhism, and to have it transmitted worldwide. In his speech given to the Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders held at UN in 2000, he promoted the idea of Spiritual Environmental Protection. He urged people all over the world to use that as a key guide for achieving permanent world peace, and received resounding approval and praise from the participants. We may say that Master Sheng Yen’s great forethought and his profound influences and contributions to world came from his compassion and wisdom rooted in Chinese Ch'an Buddhism. Full text includes four parts. First: A historical analysis of Buddhism development, form modern to contemporary age, and its current situation. Second: A further discussion on “The crisis and the opportunity of contemporary Buddhism,” from the cultural perspective. Third: A clarification of “The theoretical basics of the Chinese Ch'an Buddhism,” by tracing back from the sutra and sastra of Indian Buddhism to the practice and philosophy of Chinese Buddhism. Finally: “On Master Sheng Yen’s Renaissance Movement of Chinese Ch'an Buddhism,” a conclusive inference on Master Sheng Yen’s systems of thought regarding Ch'an practice and cultivation.