|並列篇名||The Renaissance Movement of Chinese Buddhism by Master Sheng Yen: Focusing on the Chinese Ch’an Buddhism he established|
|關鍵字||漢傳禪佛教 、 如來藏 、 無我 、 話頭 、 默照 、 止觀 、 Chinese Ch'an Buddhism 、 Tathāgatagarbha 、 No-self 、 Hua-t'ou 、 Mo-chao 、 Calming and Contemplation|
Transmitted to China in Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220) and entered its prosperous time in Wei, Jin and the Southern and Northern Dynasties (265-589) periods, Chinese Buddhism reached its heyday in Sui and Tang Dynasties (581-907) and started its decline in Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1297). For almost a thousand years since then, it’s been more or less at a low ebb, though it had a momentary revival in the late Ming Dynasty (1368- 1644) due to the efforts and influences of the Four Main Buddhist Masters of that era. Since the Industry Revolution in 18th Century, the situation of the world had been greatly changed, so as the international affairs. Yet, due to the Manchu Court’s policy of isolationism, China became a conquered and victimized territory of the Great Powers. Populace were hard pressed and trampled, and the nation’s on the brink of collapse under the crush of Western inroads and encroachments. No exception to the Chinese Buddhism as well. It’s not until early 20th century when Master T'ai Hsü (1890-1947) made a clarion call to advocate the modernization of Chinese Buddhism after his travelling aboard for studying the conditions of Buddhism overseas, the light of reformation and renewal of the Buddhism has been seen once again. Along with the three-generation master-disciple lineage, from Master T'ai Hsü, Venerable Tung Ch'u (1908-1977) to Master Sheng Yen (1930-2009), the vision and mission of Modern Chinese Buddhism were passed through, commencing from Humanistic Buddhism to the promotion and development of Pure Land on Earth. Master T'ai Hsü stated that the unique characteristic of Chinese Buddhism lied in Ch'an (Zen) School. Master Sheng Yen not only inherited Venerable Hsü Yün’s (1840-1959) concept and methods of Ch'an lineage, merely as a monk, he also travelled aboard to study in Japan for years and received his Master and Doctorate degrees. He believed that Buddhist education is the key and foundation to the revival of the Chinese Buddhism in the long run. For more than twenty years, he’d been dedicating himself in establishing advanced Buddhism colleges. These colleges were finally accepted as formal national education institutions. Moreover, Master Sheng Yen also dedicating himself in dharma preaching, promotion of Ch'an practices, writing books of Buddhism and establishing the Dharma Dram Mountain Sangha and the Practice Center. These all showed his strong determination to revive the Chinese Ch'an Buddhism, and to have it transmitted worldwide. In his speech given to the Millennium World Peace Summit of Religious and Spiritual Leaders held at UN in 2000, he promoted the idea of Spiritual Environmental Protection. He urged people all over the world to use that as a key guide for achieving permanent world peace, and received resounding approval and praise from the participants. We may say that Master Sheng Yen’s great forethought and his profound influences and contributions to world came from his compassion and wisdom rooted in Chinese Ch'an Buddhism. Full text includes four parts. First: A historical analysis of Buddhism development, form modern to contemporary age, and its current situation. Second: A further discussion on “The crisis and the opportunity of contemporary Buddhism,” from the cultural perspective. Third: A clarification of “The theoretical basics of the Chinese Ch'an Buddhism,” by tracing back from the sutra and sastra of Indian Buddhism to the practice and philosophy of Chinese Buddhism. Finally: “On Master Sheng Yen’s Renaissance Movement of Chinese Ch'an Buddhism,” a conclusive inference on Master Sheng Yen’s systems of thought regarding Ch'an practice and cultivation.