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中國學術年刊 THCI

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篇名 王船山內丹思想研究 ──以〈遠遊〉註為核心的考察
卷期 40秋
並列篇名 A Study of the Neidan Theory of Wang Fuzhi: an Investigation on the Basis of the Notes to “Far-off Journey”
作者 康自強
頁次 001-026
關鍵字 五氣朝元三花聚頂刀圭入口鍊神鍊神盜天the combination of five types of qithe three phases of transmutationthe absorption of inner elixirqispiritstealing qi from heavenTHCI
出刊日期 201809
DOI 10.6238/SIS.201809_(40-2).01

中文摘要

晚明知識界是三教思想融合的時代,許多儒者多兼修道教內丹,或是佛教唯識,累積了非常豐富的身心實踐經驗。船山受到時風的影響,特別關注內丹南宗的修鍊功法,並且很可能有長期的丹道修鍊經驗。這些修練經驗,皆轉化為船山註解〈遠遊〉時的先備知識。此一獨特的詮釋角度,清楚呈現船山對南宗理論的認識,相較於內容隱晦的〈愚鼓詞〉,實為研究船山內丹思想的絕佳素材,故本文以〈遠遊〉註為考察的基礎,結合船山思想中與內丹學有關的論述,試圖深入既往船山研究中比較忽略的領域。過去雖然有少數學者留心於此,但大多停留在詮釋相關術語的階段,尚未論及船山內丹學的理論架構,或是否有其特殊的理論立場。簡言之,比較缺乏系統性的整理。本文以為船山內丹思想固然源自內丹南宗,但他並未全盤接受南宗之說,而是有所擇汰。大體而言,船山接受南宗之「五氣朝元」,並以此為其內丹學之骨幹;雖亦重內丹修鍊中的「三花聚頂」與「刀圭入口」,但篩濾「鍊精化氣」與「鍊神合道」兩端,獨取中段之「鍊氣化神」,尤其關注修鍊過程中所涉及的養氣與鍊神等功法。換言之,船山內丹學畢竟維繫了儒者的本懷,所以刻意「淡化」一般內丹學中的房中思想與長生不死,而將詮釋焦點放在儒學本身相對缺乏的身體技術,關注呼吸行氣與靜坐凝神的實踐要領,符合船山一貫的重氣立場。

英文摘要

Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, and Daoism were merged by the intellectuals in the late period of Ming dynasty. Many Confucian scholars researched the theory of Vijñānavāda (唯識) or neidan (內丹), so they received a lot of practical experience. Wang Fuzhi was influenced by the trend of the period,so he paid much attention to the practical theory and obtained much religious experience. This became the basis of the notes to the far-off Journey (遠遊), which is a section of the famous anthology of poetry called Chu Ci (楚辭). The Daoism knowledge behind the notes clearly represents the neidan theory of the South school (南宗), and they are the best materials to study Wang’s neidan theory if researchers compare them to other more obscure works that he writes, such as Yu ku ci (愚鼓詞). Therefore, this paper takes the notes as the foundation that lets us understand his thoughts about neidan and tries to excavate the hidden meaning that has been ignored. In the past, a few of researchers were devoted to investigating this aera, but most of them merely explained the neidan terms that appeared in Wang’s notes. They have not discussed the theoretical structure of his neidan thoughts or the distinguishing features. In short, they do not propose the systematic statement. This paper indicates that Wang’s neidan theory comes from the South school although he has origional interpretation. On the whole, he accepts ‘the combination of five types of qi’ (五氣朝元) of the South school and takes it as the basic schema. Although he puts emphasis on ‘the three phases of transmutation’ (三花聚頂) and ‘the absorption of inner elixir’ (刀圭入口), he sieves out ‘the metamophsis of semen into qi’ (鍊精化氣) and ‘the metamophsis of spirit into dao’ (鍊神合道). He exclusively adopts ‘the metamophsis of qi into spirit’ (鍊氣化神) and its practical techniques as his theorical center. In other words, he eventually views neidan theory from the Confucianism and de-emphasizes the characteristics of it, such as sexual techniques and longevity. His notes focus on the physiological techniques that the Confucianism has relatively lacked and point out the leading principles of respiratory training and meditation. These concepts correspond with what he has emphasized, namely qi. In short, Wang’s neidan theory begins with the purification of physical qi, which means the yin must transmute into yang, and ends up in the absorption of natural qi, which means the natural energy converts into human spirit. This neidan system is centered on the conscious disciplines which pursue the connection between human and heaven.