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台灣學誌

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篇名 反共意識形態與性政治:1950-1960年代台韓社會中的他者們
卷期 18
並列篇名 Anti-Communism and Sexual Politics: The Social Others in 1950-1960 Taiwan and South Korea
作者 陳佩甄
頁次 021-042
關鍵字 冷戰反共主義同性戀他者性政治Cold Waranti-Communismhomosexualsthe Othersexual politics
出刊日期 201904
DOI 10.6242/twnica.201904_(18).0002

中文摘要

「從北Gay」這個詞過去幾年開始出現於南韓的反LGBTQ 運動中,指控性少數團 體就如同親北、親共人士,都對國家安全造成威脅。這樣的修辭不僅重新點燃過往政治 時空中普遍存在的恐怖主義,亦再次將「性變態」(sexual perversion)和「政治顛覆」 (political subversion)連結起來。本文認為「從北Gay」這樣的詞彙反映的不只是南韓 社會內部的歷史問題,對照戰後初期台灣反共論述中的「性變態」身影,即可窺見當時 台韓社會內部皆有類似的政治傾向。本文將追溯反共意識形態中「政治與性」如何交互 運作:透過檢視大眾論述如何以「性變態」為特徵,將共產主義者「非人性化」,並塑造 新的性∕別規範。為此,本文聚焦於1950-1960年代台韓媒體如何再現共產主義者和「性 變態」者,並將詳細討論三部台韓小說:《重陽》(1961)、《永遠活著》(1959)和〈傻瓜 與白痴〉(1966)。本文發現,媒體和文學再現的共產主義者和同性戀者皆與謀殺、性暴 力和性變態有關,而這樣的表現手法促成了社會大眾對於這兩種人的仇恨情緒,並將這 兩種人物轉化為意識形態和社會的不法分子。而這樣的作法,不僅讓政治意識形態得以 進入各層級人民的生活領域,同時又以性別矛盾取代階級、種族、族群間的衝突與無解。 本文強調,政治意識形態和性∕別規範必須交叉思考,才更能有效理解社會內部各種權 力關係的運作模式。

英文摘要

The term “chongbuk gei” (pro-North Korea gay) has emerged in South Korean anti-LGBTQ rhetoric in recent years. The use of this term has reignited the war era scare tactics, ultimately creating a spurious connection between sexual perversion and political subversion, and placing blame on members of these groups as threats to national security. Portrayals of “sexual perversion” in the discourse of anti-Communism also emerged in postwar Taiwan. This paper focuses on the interaction between political and sexual discourse within the framework of Cold War ideology, investigating how the representations of sexual perversion were applied to dehumanize the Communists and establish a new sexual standard. To this end, this paper examines media representation of Communists and homosexuals in the 1950s and 1960s, with a further discussion on the novels Rival Suns (1961), Living Forever (1959) and “The Wounded” (1966), published during the early postwar period in Taiwan and South Korea. It is found that a considerable number of media and literary representations of Communist and homosexual figures were linked to brutal murder, sexual violence and deviance, resulting in the general public’s contempt toward these two groups. Media and literary outlets are obvious paths for political ideology to permeate into the everyday life of the general public, while classist, racist, and ethnic conflicts are often replaced with contradictions on sexuality. As this paper argues, political ideology and sexual politics must be cross-examined for a better understanding of the operational modes of various power relations within society.