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輔仁法學

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篇名 土地法第68條登記損害賠償之研究-以賠償要件與適用範圍的爭議問題為主
卷期 66
並列篇名 A Study on Compensation Due to Registration According to Article 68 of the Land Act: Focus on Issue Study on the Requisites of Compensation and the Scope of Application
作者 黃健彰
頁次 127-229
關鍵字 登記損害賠償賠償要件適用範圍國家賠償登記儲金保險托崙斯制Compensation Due to RegistrationRequisite of CompensationScope of ApplicationState CompensationRegistration FundInsuranceTorrens System
出刊日期 202312

中文摘要

土地法第68條事關因登記錯誤、遺漏或虛偽致受損害者得否請求地政機關賠償與登記儲金運用的議題,甚具重要性。本研究從解釋論的角度探討該條規定,而非立法論。本研究兼採事前觀點與行為理論,並比較澳洲法(托崙斯制)與英格蘭法,論述該條解釋適用的方針,再分析該條賠償要件與適用範圍的爭議問題。本研究認為,土地法第68條為國家賠償責任的規定,其尚略具社會保險給付的性質。解釋適用該規定時應掌握其意旨,並考量結果導向與風險分配。該規定並非僅係配合土地登記採實質審查及登記公信力而建構,亦係為了貫徹公示性。該規定不以登記機關或登記人員有故意或過失為要件。測量錯誤不當然導致登記面積錯誤,但如測量錯誤導致登記面積錯誤,則有該規定的適用。主要用途、使用分區、使用地類別、編定使用種類登記錯誤,亦有該規定的適用。因第三人之詐術行為致登記錯誤、遺漏或虛偽(包含第三人冒充所有人虛偽設定抵押權於他人,該抵押權登記被塗銷之人並非真正權利人的情形),也常有該規定的適用。

英文摘要

Article 68 of the Land Act is with great importance since it is related to the issues: whether the injured person is able to claim compensation from the land office due to error, omission, or fraud in registration and the application of registration fund. This study explores the Article from the perspective of interpretation rather than legislation. This study adopts ex ante viewpoint and behavioral theory partially. This study also compares the Article with Australian law (Torrens system) and English law. This study discusses the guide to interpretation and application of the Article, and then deeply analyzes the disputed issues of the requisites and the scope of applying the Article. This study holds that Article 68 of the Land Act is a provision of the state's liability for compensation, which also has the nature of social insurance payment partially. When the provision is interpreted and applied, its purpose should be known well, and allocation of risk and consequentialism should be taken into account. The construction of the provision not only supports substantial review of land registration and indefeasibility, but also fulfill the publicity. The provision does not take the registry or the registration officer's intent or negligence into consideration. Errors in measurement do not always lead to errors in registered area. However, if errors in measurement lead to errors in registered area, they are applicable to the Article. If the registration of main uses, zoning or land for designated uses is error, it is also applicable to the Article. This provision also usually applies to registration error, omission or fraud caused by fraudulent acts of a third party, including the situation that "the third party feigns as the owner to set mortgage for a person fraudulently, and the person whose registration has been cancelled is not the true right holder".

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