In the Age of Discovery, the appearance of Dutchmen opened up the cultivation history of Taiwan. Tainan was their main stronghold on the island. Tainan Shui Hsien Temple, which enshrined the Gods of water, is one of the city’s oldest and most important temples. During the Ching Dynasty, the chamber guilds built their common headquarter there and set up the public metrology instruments, something very unusual in the history of Chinese temples. Due to the city’s Dutch colonization past, we believe that the original predecessor of Shui Hsien Temple should be a Dutch weigh house. Through comparative analysis with Dutch old weigh houses, we try to confirm this position. This thesis first interprets the significance of a weigh house for a Dutch old city. Furthermore, we argue that the Dutch had established a weigh house in Tainan and clarify its connection with Shui Hsien Temple. Moreover, we explain the temple’s unique role in the Chinese seafarer faith, promotion of fair trade, and offer of place for wholesale in the city. Finally, we examine the influence of Dutch town planning tradition on the historical capital of Taiwan.